How do I apply for a new connection?
What is the cost of a new connection?
The total cost of a new connection is comprised of two aspects:
- Connection Cost as follows:
- Connection to ½” main - $ 75.00
- Connection to ¾” main - $ 125.00
- Connection to 1” main - $ 175.00
- Connection to 1 ¼”, 1 ½” and 2” main - $ 420.00
- Connection to 4” main - $ 1000.00
- Other (Variable) Costs
- Transportation, Pipes & fittings, VAT
Therefore, an estimate of all costs must be prepared to determine the total cost of a connection.
How long does it take NAWASA to install a new service?
As per our customer service charter, a new service should be installed within 10 working days after payment of connection fee.
How may a customer request changes to account name or billing/mailing address?
To change an account name, the customer needs to fill out the application for change of name form and provide at least one of the following documents:
- Title Deed/Conveyance
- Death Certificate
- Letter from Lawyer
- Court Judgement
To change the billing/mailing address, the customer needs to fill out the "Change of Mailing Address Form"
NB: For all account changes, customers need to provide a valid picture I.D.
What does it mean if I have been paying my bills, however my bill shows arrears?
This may mean that your current bill may have already been issued, prior to payment of your previous bill.
I require a new connection; however I do not own the property. Can I still receive a connection to that property, in my name?
Certainly. However, the applicant must provide written permission from the property owner along with the owner's I.D. permitting NAWASA to effect the connection on the property. Additionally, the applicant must be willing to pay a security deposit of $240 (Domestic), $340 (Commercial) or $2,000 (Projects). This deposit is refundable under two circumstances:
- applicant becomes the property owner and submits ownership documents
- Permanent termination of the service
My water consumption is too high, what could be the problem?
High consumption may be attributable to a number of factors, such as estimated bills, leaks, unsecured taps which are easily accessible or a faulty meter. To determine whether the property has a leak, the customer must make sure that all taps are turned off, and then monitor the meter dial. A revolving meter indicates the presence of a leak. If there is no leak, contact Customer Services Department at any of our branches.
How are estimated bills calculated?
Estimated bills are calculated using an average of the customer's last three months' consumption.
Under what circumstances does NAWASA effect disconnection of water service?
- At the request of the customer.
- For non-payment of arrears
- For wastage or abuse
- Illegal tampering of meters and other fittings
What are the procedures for requesting disconnection?
Request for disconnection of service must be either made in writing or at the office by filling out a "Request for disconnection" form. Such request can only be made by the owner of the account or duly authorized person (as per authorization documents). Valid Identification required.
What is the minimum balance for which a customer can be disconnected?
A customer is liable for disconnection for a minimum of $50.00, once that balance represents an amount which is at least 30 days in arrears.
After payment of a reconnection fee, how long does it take to reconnect a service?
Reconnection of service is not guaranteed within 48 hours after payment of the reconnection fee.
What kind of safety measures are there in place for workers?
- The provision of First Aid Kit to all offices
- The provision of safety gear to workers e.g. Water Boots Steel Tip shoes, Gloves, Mast, Helmet, Overall
- The provision of the right tools to workers
- Provision of appropriate work station to staff
- The provision of First Aid Training to staff
- First Aid items distributed to various crews
- The provision of Fire Extinguisher in strategic areas of the buildings
- Worker Compensation (NIS)
- Proper lighting on facility for night workers
- Commercial Business Insurance, Motor Vehicles and Group Health Insurance
What Health and Safety practices are carried out within this organization?
- The use of safety gear for example Steel tip boots, Water boots and overall by some category of workers
- First Aid Kit by crew working out in the field
- Working with the right tool to avoid injury
- Servicing to Motor Vehicle and equipment to make sure they are in proper working condition
- Up to date insurance coverage
- Security of property by fencing and the provision of lock and key
- Security of property by provision of Security Officers
Are there any benefit provided by NAWASA for employees after service in business for a certain number of years?
Yes. NAWASA provide pension and service compensation as specified by the various Union representing the different categories of workers.
Is the joining of Labour Unions or any type of bargaining agent allowed?
Yes. NAWASA Workers are represented by two bargaining agent/labour unions: Public Workers Union and Grenada Technical & Allied Workers Union both Unions represent different categories of workers.
What about sick leave benefits for employees?
- The sick leaves are taken care of by The National Insurance Scheme (NIS) based on the National Insurance Law and tion for expense incurred if workers get damaged on the job.
- Medical certificate/s together with all bill incurred is required to be submitted for all sick leaves and expenses.
- A medical Certificate is required to support any absence on sick leave in excess of two (2) consecutive days. No more than eight absences, per calendar year of up to two days each, due to sickness, shall be permitted by NAWASA without a medical certificate.
In case of reduction in work quality or employees cannot work because of health reason on injury on the job are they given some form of numeration payment?
Yes. Workers are paid according to the existing Union Agreement also through NIS Compensation will be paid in accordance with the provisions of the Workmen’s compensation (Amendment) Law 1992 amended in 2010.
Are there any benefits for children of employees?
- Yes: Children of employees who are successful in Caribbean Exit exam usually get assistance in the form of stationery or monetary reward.
- Children of employees also benefit from the company Group Health Plan where their name could be included on their parents plan and they stand to benefit from such plan.
If individual who have been trained, for instance as a Plumber etc. in a reputable College or similar institution come for employment with you company, would they still required undergoing further training with your company?
Yes. Companies have formality or standard in doing things anyone new employee at NAWASA although they have the basic as well as training in that field will have to undergo further training to be able to produce at a level which is acceptable by the company.
Does the company have a special complaints service similar to Customer Services to deal with problems pertaining to their job at the Company?
There are procedures to be followed when dealing with problems pertaining to employees as stipulated in the union agreements. All complaints have to go through various stages it starts with the individual supervisor and ends with the Union or Labour Commissioner if it was not resolve internally.
Is there a means or method (Provided by the company) to chart the progress of employees over a given period of time?
Yes: Performance Evaluation.
What part does the government play in the overall running , checking to see if NAWASA has proper Health, safety and welfare methods provided for its workers and customers as a whole?
NAWASA report to the Ministry of Health with regard to the quality of water given to consumers, moreover NAWASA is mandated by law ACT # 25 of 1990 to provide portable water to customers also by it mission statement which reads “To provide customer with a safe and adequate water supply safe disposal of waste water, in a viable and efficient manner that meet and exceed customer expectations, and ensure the development of our organization, communities and nation.
Additionally NAWASA follows the World Health Organization (WHO) Guideline in treating water.
Moreover, the Government undertakes projects in the form of installation of pipes for the increase distribution of water to customers through negotiating for grant from foreign Agencies.
Are there any incentive given to workers after a given period of time?
What are the strategies used to develop or improve employee’s performance?
- Induction Training
- On-The Job Training
- Incentives/Recognition of academic achievement and good performance
- Annual staff training and development Plan – This plan caters for training opportunities for all categories of staff conducted both locally, regionally and internationally enables workers to perform better by applying knowledge gained from the courses
- Job rotation within departments and cross departments to provide exposure and a holistic view of NAWASA
- Conducting of Job Evaluation and Salary Review Exercise with a view to bring improved levels of alignment, organizational efficiency and productivity to an operation by ensuring internal and external equity in job definition, recognition and reward
- Encouragement of team work to generate more information in the form of more ideas and mind of work.
Is there hazardous material (s) that could affect the workers health (on the job)?
- Workers who have to work with hazardous material such as those required to treat water with chemicals are provided with the necessary protective clothing and special equipment to work with.
- Secondly they are provided with free medical examination yearly
Are workers paid based on their performance or their academic qualification?
Workers are paid according to the job worth or their qualification and experience.
Is the system “equal work for equal ‘pay” applies?
For each job there is a salary/wages range and it does not specify male or female getting difference in pay.
What type of protection (security system) against robbery or breakage?
- Security guards are place at NAWASA offices on a 24 hour bases.
- Property are fenced and locked
- Proper lighting facility are in placed
- Cameras are in placed
What are some of the policies of NAWASA?
- Hurricane Procedures Manual
- Transport Policy
- National Water Policy of Grenada
- Revived Training Policy
- Policy on Water to Private Development
- Policy for Disposal of Vehicles
- Personnel Policies and Procedures Policy Document No. A-03 Code of Discipline
- Personnel Policies and Procedures Policy Document No. A-03 General Employee Responsibilities
- Policy with Regard to Connections without Permission
- Policy and Procedures for Community – Level Water Projects
- Public Relations Policy
- Travel Allowance Policy
- Schedule of Authorization limits Policy Document No. A – 01
- Revived Guidelines for Disconnection of Customers in Arrears
What does the word NAWASA means?
National Water & Sewerage Authority (NAWASA)
Where are NAWASA located and was the main office at a different location before?
The main office is located on the Carenage, but its facilities are spread throughout Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique. Some of the sub offices are Gouyave, Grenville, Sauteurs St. David’s and Grand Anse offices. The main office was always located on the Carenage, St. George’s.
Is NAWASA easily accessible to the consumers?
Yes. NAWASA's location is easily accessible to consumer for payment of rates. The cash office is located at the ground floor on the Carenage also all of the other sub offices where payment are made are located in the towns and are at the ground floor.
Approximately how many persons are employed at NAWASA?
The Authority has a complement of two hundred and thirty seven (237) employees on a permanent and contracted basis.
Who is the owner of NAWASA?
The Owner of NAWASA is the Government of Grenada.
Who was the founder of NAWASA?
The founder of NAWASA is the Government of Grenada.
What are the objectives of NAWASA?
NAWASA objectives are:
- To sustain a friendly and efficient working environment that attracts, retains and develops committed employees who share in the success of the Authority.
- To plan for orderly growth in the economy, and the growing need of domestic, commercial and industrial consumers for water supply/waste water services.
- To demonstrate concern for the community and the environment, through the promotion of sustainable development.
- To ensure that NAWASA is meeting its operational costs and generating an operational surplus that is adequate to finance its capital replacement and upgrading program.
- To ensure that NAWASA is capable of supplying all customers with a reliable, adequate and safe supply of water, and to meet the sewerage needs in designated priority areas.
- To ensure that infrastructure, tools equipment and vehicles are available for use is appropriate for accomplishing NAWASA’s mission.
- To ensure sustainable pool of trained and efficient human resources is available for the ongoing functioning of NAWASA
- To attain complete regulatory compliance to the stipulated minimum water quality standards and service standards.
- To provide a high quality customer experience that is comparable with international benchmarks and standards for the water sector.
Are there legal issues related to this business?
Yes. Legislative Act # 25 of 1990, refusal of consumers to pay their water and Sewerage Bill and a review of the Act.
What are the constraints that affect decision making process in NAWASA or the management issues identified?
Constraints that affect decision making process in NAWASA are as follows:
- As a statutory entity incoherent coordination and communication between the Government and NAWASA as it relates to economic and social policies will affect strategy.
- Inadequacies in current legislation are huge obstacles to financial viability.
- As a statutory entity incoherent coordination and communication between the Government and NAWASA as it relates to Loss making projects are supported without any external subvention.
What are some functions of Management?
Some functions of Management includes
- To recruit workers
- To development the human resource through training and workshops
- To help formulate policies of the organization
- To manage the Authority’s finances
- To plan various projects for all the departments
- To design projects
- To undertake agreement for capital projects.
- To discipline workers
Give the different ways in which communications takes place in NAWASA?
There are a number of ways in which communication takes place in NAWASA
- Through Memo/Memos
- Telephones calls(Cellular & Fix Office/internal & external - intercom)
- News Letter
Identify problems faced by NAWASA?
- A depletion of portable water for distribution to consumers mainly, during the dry season.
- Blockage of dam during the rainy season due to high rain fall thus causing shortage of water in some areas due to fallen trees and boulders.
- Increase in the number of customers
- Development in areas with little or no pipeline network
- Frequent breakage of pipeline due to
- High pressure on the line
- Old pipelines
- Movement of earth mainly during high rainfall
- Vandalism/Broken Lines: Presence of unauthorized persons tampering with systems thus causing shortage of water in some areas. Vandalism to water main causing breakage.
- Broken lines due to land slide or land movement
How quick is the response?
- Depends on the amount of areas affect to respond in terms of Truck Borne water
- Based on the nature of the problem there are some limitations:
- Within 48 hours for most problems example burst pipe, reconnection
- Proximity to road and transportation i.e. landscape, Mountainous terrain: because of the location of some of our facilities (High up in the mountain and) response will depend on the time taken to relay information
- Availability of manpower
- Availability of equipment’s: Pipes are laid underground, this entails digging often times paved roads using heavy equipment’s
- Refer to Customer Service Charter for more on target responses time
Action taken to reduce problem
- Trucking of water to the affected areas in times of drought in areas without pipeline.
- Rationing through regulation of valves.
- Reduce pressure on line by attachment of pressure reducing device on the distribution main
- Project planning, designing, fund sourcing and implementation to replace pipeline and develop new service of water including rain water harvesting.
- The upgrading of pipelines
- Maintenance: Example Cleaning dams, tanks and rehabilitating filters
What are some barriers of entry and exit into the portable water industry in Grenada that are protecting the firm?
The legislation of Grenada presently establishes that all water in the Tri-Island state is the property of NAWASA and therefore any other entity who wishes to exploit the potential portable water of Grenada will have to obtain a license from NAWASA or the Government of Grenada.
Is there a limit on the amount of water NAWASA can supply to the country per day/month/year?
Yes! This is due to the production capacity of the Water Treatment Plants.
With the introduction of another business same or similar to yours would the demand for your product be affected?
Yes the market share will decrease.
Do you have any queries by customers?
Yes. Some of the queries are estimated bills, high charges, high usages, query on adjustments.
How great is the demand for your product?
Above supply – inadequate supplied.
Water supply produced for customers use island wide
- Daily = 7.0 Million Gallons Daily
- Weekly =52 Million Gallons Weekly
- Monthly = 218 Million Gallon Monthly
- Yearly = 2,520 Million Gallon Yearly
Average water supply used per customer
- Daily = 30 Gallons Daily
- Weekly = 210 Gallons Weekly
- Monthly =840 Gallon Monthly
- Yearly = 10080 Gallon Yearly
Average water usage per family of four per month = 3600 gallons.
What is a Motto of NAWASA?
“Committed to Meeting Customers’ Needs”
Does NAWASA contribute to the development of Grenada?
Yes. In fact all economics activities in Grenada depend on water to function. It is the main fuel that drives economic growth, some example of those sectors are Tourism, Construction, Agriculture both livestock and crop and Restaurant. Additionally, The National Water & Sewerage Authority (NAWASA) employs a large portion of the labour force it plays a part in contributing to the GDP of Grenada. Moreover, NAWASA in collaboration with the Government of Grenada to assist the under privilege persons by providing them with water connection and the Government pays the cost of connection and the water rates.
Give names of Borehole and the areas they served with water?
- Chemin Valley: Part of Calivigny, Close Rock,Confer, Part of Old Westerhall, Egmont, Part of Marian
- Woodlands:Woodlands, Golf Course, Woburn Reservoir
- La Sagesse: Petit Esperance, La Sagesse. Malti,Corinth and Red Gate
- Bacolet: Bacolet, Las Segesse, Westerhall, Fort Jeudy, Part of Calivigny, Parts of Old Westerhall
What are the functions of the various departments of NAWASA?
FUNCTIONS OF THE PRODUCTION & QUALITY DEPARTMENT
- Collection and Disposal of Sewerage in designated areas
- The Production and Treatment of water
- Testing of water
- Carrying out of analysis of water both chemical and bacteriological
FUNCTIONS OF THE PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
- For the safe keeping of personnel and other records
- To assist with the recruitment process of worker and staff promotion
- Development of the human resource through training and workshops
- To help formulate policies of the organization
- For Health & Safety issues of workers
- To help enforce Disciplinary measures
- To assist with the Performance evaluation/appraisal of staff
- For staff welfare
- Management of vacation leaves in order to permit orderly scheduling of workload.
- For induction/orientation of new staff
- Workers Welfare
FUNCTIONS OF THE FINANCE DEPARTMENT
- For accounts management
- For debt management
- Cash collection
- Customer complaint management
- For the management of the Authority’s finances
What are the internal sources of finance for NAWASA?
Operational financing through water and sewer rate collection.
What are the external sources of finance for NAWASA?
Grants Concession, Loans
What are some of the factors that are taken into consideration when choosing alternative sources of finance?
- The ability to repay the loan
- The rate of interest
- Workers should not be frequently absence from duty without permission or a valid excuse
- The use of illegal substance is not allowed
- Drunken and disorderly behavior on NAWASA’s premises is not allowed
- Theft or inappropriate removal or possession of property is not allowed
- Workers are expected to be punctual at all times
- There should not be a violation of safety or health rules
- Most of the day’s work for field worker is spent in the field
- Workers must adhere to wearing safety gears
- Workers must be uniformed (wear NAWASA clothing)
- Workers may work after hours and weekends
- Field workers are entitled to same benefits as office workers
- For dress code, grooming and personal cleanliness standards affect the image of the Authority. Therefore, during working hours, workers are expected to present a clean and neat appearance, and in this regard, staffs are also not allowed to wear.
- T-Shirt or shirts with writing or political slogan
- Offensive apparel
How is moral and ethical approaches dealt with in terms of legal policies on Health & Safety?
Moral and ethical considerations are addressed in terms of: Legal policies on safety, health and welfare and moral approaches to handle safety, health and welfare are adequately dealt with by the various union representing workers at NAWASA.
What are some of the problem faced with recruitment?
- Unsuitable application
- Contact number not in use/no reply
- Most applicant have theoretical certificate but not practical
- Lack of experience by applicant
How is employee records maintained within the Human Resource Department?
- Time Card
- Personal file
- Computerize system/password
- Filing Cabinet/Lock & Key
How often training is done?
What are the different records kept in the Human Resource Department?
- Personal Files
- Group Health Insurance
- Other Insurance
- Union Agreement & Correspondence
- Letter And Memo received and Sent out
- Uniform Information
- Temporary Employment Records
What method do you use to identify the Human Resources needs of your organization?
The Human Resource needs of NAWASA are identify through the following process.
- Succession Planning
- Management identify those needs through manpower assessment,
- Strategic planning
What are the procedures used for recruitment after identifying the Human Resource needs?
The procedures used for recruitment after identifying the Human Resource needs are:
- Advertisement; (For the position with the requirement needed for the position)
- Short listing to select persons with the right qualification and experience
- preparation of Job Description;
- Short listing to select the right person for the job
How is the selection process conducted to select candidates?
The selection process for recruiting workers is done through:
- Interview to access the attainment of the requirement for the position (Qualification, experience, training, skills necessary etc.).
Who is responsible for conducting the selection process?
The selection process is done by a panel of interviewers.
What type of interview is used to select candidates?
Face to face engagements are used.
What are the attitudes and attributes do you look for when interviewing candidates?
- Communications skills (oral & Written)
- Eye contact
- Interest for the position
- Interpretation of information
What type of training is produced for the candidates?
Orientation/Induction: On the Job Training on the operations of the company which includes introduction and familiarization with:
- Strategic interest of the company.
How is training structured for the new recruit?
- Sessions for a period of 1 – 2 days
- Field Trips
Is there an on-going training structured for the new recruit?
Yes. A Training Plan which identify structured training for the entire year in various areas.
What are the methods of assessment used to evaluate the performance of the recruits after training?
- Rating Sheets
- Discussions with managers on performance
Give the type of Organizational Structure of NAWASA?
Board of Directors headed by a chairman -> General Manager -> Senior Managers, Managers -> Assistant Managers-> Supervisors-> Operational Staff.
Does the business employ the use of management information Unit? E.g. computer etc.
Yes in fact we have an Information System Unit.
What factors of production are utilized at NAWASA?
- Human Resource
What type of production is NAWASA involved in?
Portable drinking water.
What type of business does NAWASA operate?
The National Water & Sewerage Authority (NAWASA) is a Public utility (operates as a Statutory body) - With a monopoly on the production and distribution of portable water and the collection and disposal of sewerage. Within the framework of its operation The National Water & Sewerage Authority (NAWASA) has a responsibility to provide a service to deprive communities and institutions to meet their need for water supply.
How does products reaches consumers?
- Through the pipeline
- Water Tanker
What are the marketing activities undertaken by this firm?
There is an absent of marketing because of our monopoly, However, The National Water & Sewerage Authority through its Communication Unit organize programs to sensitize the public to conserve water.
How are goods stored?
Water is stored mainly in Storage Reservoir that is the final storage before distribution to consumers however; other means of storage are dams and sedimentation tanks.
How many out-lets does NAWASA have for distribution?
Thirty (30) outlets included are surface water treatment plants boreholes and desalination plants.
What type of transportation does The National Water & Sewerage Authority utilize?
Water transportation is mainly through the pipeline, however water tanker is also use to transport water. Other transportation used is mostly pickup vans to transport crew and tools, backhoes and trucks.
Is NAWASA insured?
Yes it is NAWASA’s policy that all assets are insured for example, Public and Private Liabilities, Group Health and workmen compensation for workers also National Insurance Scheme and Motor Vehicle Fleet.
Is the business profitable?
Yes, modest profit are made annually but NAWASA objective is not profit but to provide adequate reliable water and safely dispose waste water at a reasonable cost in keeping with its Mission Statement.
Why did NAWASA adopt this type of organizational structure?
The structure is deemed appropriate based on the operations involve in providing the products and services: Engineering Department, Human Resource, and Finance.
Are employees and managers provided with job description?
Yes they are provided with those documents.
Do employees sign employment contract?
What are the hours of work adopted by NAWASA?
- Public Workers Union workers (PWU) 8.00 am– 4.00pm Monday - Friday
- Technical & Allied Workers Union workers (TAWU)
Monday – Thursday 7.30 am – 4.30 pm
Friday 7.30 – 3.30 pm
What are the sources of capital?
- Operational financing through water & sewer rates collection
- Loan financing
What are some of the Careers available at NAWASA?
- Administrative Assistance
- Meter Reader
- Field Officer
- Plant Operator
- Accounts Clerk
- Purchasing Clerk
- Customer Service Representative
- Laboratory Technician
- Chlorinator technician
- Documentation Clerk
- Asst. Managers
- Chief Engineer
- GIS Specialist
- Data Collector
- Leak Detection Technician
- Meter Technician
- Engineering Technician
- Water Resource Technician
- Engineering Assistance
- Area Supervisor
How does technology impact career in terms of Employment, unemployment, environmental, processing and security at NAWASA?
Technology impact career in terms:
Employment: Technology increases productivity, improve quality and enhance works.
Unemployment: With technology employer tend to use less workers in most cases, they also tend to streamline the workforce requiring a more skilled and technical workforce
Environment: Technology create problem in some cases with regard to:
- Deposit & emission
- Displacement of workforce
- Demand for rest and leisure increases
- Increase risk of intuition and illegal activities
- Becomes a pressing issue as need to balance confidentiality with working data easily available and accessible the use of password and incubation method becomes necessary
Processing: With technology the volume of data increases which increases and create a demand on the machineries therefore, from time to time there is a need for upgrade. Thus we are confronted with processors of more capacity but smaller in sizes
Where are the water sources and storage facilities?
What are the duties and responsibilities of a receptionist?
- Answer telephone and route call promptly
- Direct visitors to the appropriate personnel
- Sort and distribute mails to Division Heads and other Employees
- Maintain register for all incoming and outgoing mails
- Maintain register for monies remitted by mail.
- All mails hand delivered must be entered in the register.
- Maintain stamp register
- At all times customers should be treated with courtesy and respect.
- Calls should be dealt with in business-like manner, using proper dictation, Standard English and Pleasant voice.
- Telephone calls should be answered no later than the third ring.
- Calls should be routed to the various personnel immediately on receipt.
- Personnel should be notified immediately before directing visitors.
- All business mails should be registered in the book provided with 100% accuracy.
- All mails of an urgent nature should be brought to the attention of the General Manager immediately.
- Reconcile stamps on a daily basis with 100% accuracy.
- The Receptionist should be dress appropriately and professionally. The Receptionist should adhere to the working hours reach at least 15 minutes before work start to be able to prepare his or herself to start work promptly.
- To Provide loyal service to the company and to refrain from all activities that undermines the reputation of the company
- To carry out all lawful instructions for the proper execution of the contract;
- To account for all money and property received during the course of his/her employment;
- To exercise reasonable care in the execution of his/her work.
What are some studies done/assisted by former NAWASA workers?
- Hydrological Map of the Island of Carriacou-Explanatory Note by Mr. Denis Campbell-Central Water Commission and Philippe Barragne-Bigot of UN Project RLA year 1987
- CBWMP Water Main Repair Cast Iron Job Aid by Leighton Tamar- Central Water Commission – Grenada year 1979
- Conference on Organisation and Financing of Sewerage Sector Development Trinidad, 13-15 June 1989 Status Report on The Sewerage Sector in Grenada Prepared by Terrence Smith- Central Water Commission and Kennedy Roberts Ministry of Health